is the most common piroplasm infecting humans, but they have identified over twenty piroplasms carried by ticks. In addition to transmission by a tick, babesia can be transmitted from mother to unborn child or through a contaminated blood transfusion.
Symptoms: similar to those of Lyme disease but babesiosis more often starts with a high fever and chills. As the infection progresses, patients may develop fatigue, headache, drenching sweats, muscle aches, chest pain, hip pain and shortness of breath (“air hunger”).
is a bacteria that live primarily inside the lining of the blood vessels. They can infect humans, mammals and a wide range of wild animals. It is mainly carried by cats and causes cat-scratch disease, endocarditis, and several other serious diseases in humans
Symptoms: include fever, fatigue, headache, poor appetite, and an unusual streaked rash that resembles “stretch marks” from pregnancy. Swollen glands are typical, especially around the head, neck and arms. Neurological symptoms include: blurred vision, numbness in the extremities, memory loss, balance problems, headaches, ataxia (unsteady gait), and tremors. Bartonellosis also sometimes triggers psychiatric manifestations.
is known as lyme disease is a bacterial infection caused by a spirochete, a type of bacteria, called Borrelia burgdorferi, which is passed by a tick bite. Because of the corkscrew like shape of the spirochete, lyme bacteria can invade many systems in the body and will affect patients differently depending on where the bacteria has migrated.
Symptoms: of lyme disease vary greatly, but skin disorders, arthritis and various neurological symptoms may be present. Examples include a reddish skin rash, headaches, neck pain, chronic fatigue, fibromyalgia, joint pain, emotional instability and mental confusion.
brucellosis is a severe acute febrile disease caused by bacteria of the genus Brucella. Portals of entry are the mouth, conjunctivae, respiratory tract and abraded skin. Brucella is also passed from handling of infected animals or consuming contaminated milk or milk products.
Symptoms: at onset can mimic influenza with fever reaching 38 to 40°C. Other symptoms include limb and back pain, sweating and fatigue and anemia
is a fungus that aids with nutrient absorption and digestion, when in proper levels in the body. When it overproduces, the typical Candida symptoms may appear. In the digestive tract, left unchecked, it breaks down the walls of the intestinal lining and penetrates into the bloodstream. This releases by-product toxins and other toxins from your system, causing leaky gut.
Symptoms: include brain fog, exhaustion, allergies and sinus problems, UTIs, joint pain, hormone imbalances
bacteria that infects humans and is a major cause of pneumonia. Person to person transmission occurs through respiratory secretions.
Symptoms: include pneumonia or bronchitis, gradual onset of cough with low-grade fever. The spectrum of illness can range from asymptomatic infection to severe disease.
Clostridium difficile C.
is an infection that can range from mild to life-threatening. As the bacteria overgrow they release toxins that attack the lining of the intestines, causing a condition called Clostridium difficilecolitis.
Symptoms: include watery diarrhea, three or more times a day for several days, with abdominal pain or tenderness.
(hand, foot, mouth disease) is a member of a family of viruses called enteroviruses. There are two different types of coxsackieviruses: A and B. Type A viruses cause herpangina (sores in the throat) and hand, foot, and mouth disease. Type B viruses cause epidemic pleurodynia, and inflammation in the chest. Both types A and B viruses can cause meningitis (inflammation of the spinal cord or brain), myocarditis (inflammation of the heart muscle), and pericarditis (inflammation of the sac surrounding the heart). They also may have a role in the development of acute onset juvenile diabetes.
Symptoms: include fever, poor appetite, runny nose and sore throat can appear three to five days after exposure. A blister-like rash on the hands, feet and in the mouth usually develops one to two days after the initial symptoms.
human papillomaviruses are members of the Papovaviridae family of epitheliotropic double-stranded DNA viruses and are considered tumor viruses because of their ability to immortalize normal cells. Currently more than 130 types of HPV have been identified, with more than 40 types infectious for the lower genital tract. These are generally characterized as “low-risk” types, which are primarily associated with genital warts and respiratory papillomatosis, or as “high-risk” types which are associated with low-grade and high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL and HSIL) and invasive cancer.
Symptoms: most patients with anal condylomata present with minor complaints. The most frequent complaint is that of perianal growth. Pruritus ani may be present and to a lesser degree, discharge, bleeding, odor, tenesmus, and difficult perianal hygiene may be noted.
the species that infects humans is commonly known as human CMV. It is related to other herpesviruses. All herpesviruses share a characteristic ability to remain latent within the body over long periods. Although they may be found throughout the body, CMV infections are frequently associated with the salivary glands in humans and other mammals.
Symptoms: include enlarged lymph nodes, especially in the neck, fever, fatigue, loss of appetite, malaise, muscle aches, rash, sore throat
parasites multiply inside host cells, forming large mulberry-shaped clusters called morulae that doctors can sometimes see on blood smears. The infection still can easily be missed. The doctor may suspect ehrlichiosis/anaplasmosis in a patient who does not respond well to treatment for Lyme disease.
Symptoms: flu-like signs and symptoms may appear — usually within seven to 14 days of the bite and include: mild fever, headache, chills, muscle aches, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, fatigue, loss of appetite, joint pain, confusion, rash & cough.
Epstein Barr Virus
nicknamed, “mono.” It’s also called the “kissing disease” because of one way you can spread it to someone else. Even though Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) isn’t a household name, you’ve probably been infected without knowing it. Lots of people carry the virus but don’t get sick.
Symptoms: once you’re infected with EBV, symptoms can take 4 to 6 weeks to show up. Symptoms include: fatigue, fever, lack of appetite, rash, sore throat, weakness, sore muscles, & swollen glands in the neck.
giardia infection is an intestinal infection marked by abdominal cramps, bloating, nausea and bouts of watery diarrhea. Giardia infection is caused by a microscopic parasite that is found worldwide, especially in areas with poor sanitation and unsafe water.
Giardia infection (giardiasis) is one of the most common causes of waterborne disease in the United States. The parasites are found in backcountry streams and lakes but also in municipal water supplies, swimming pools, whirlpool spas and wells. Giardia infection can be transmitted through food and person-to-person contact.
Symptoms include: watery, sometimes foul-smelling diarrhea that may alternate with soft, greasy stools, fatigue or malaise, abdominal cramps and bloating, gas or flatulence, nausea, weight loss.
is a type of bacteria which can enter your body and live in your digestive tract. After H. pylori enters your body, it attacks the lining of your stomach, which usually protects you from the acid your body uses to digest food. Once the bacteria have done enough damage, acid can get through the lining, which leads to ulcers. These may bleed, cause infections, or keep food from moving through your digestive tract.
Symptoms: may feel like a dull or burning pain in your belly. It may come and go, but you’ll probably feel it most when your stomach is empty, such as between meals or in the middle of the night. It can last for a few minutes or for hours. You may feel better after you eat, drink milk, or take an antacid
are categorized into two types: herpes type 1 (oral herpes) and herpes type 2 (genital herpes). Most commonly, herpes type 1 causes sores around the mouth and lips (sometimes called fever blisters or cold sores). Type 1 can cause genital herpes, but most cases of genital herpes are caused by herpes type 2. In type 2, the infected person may have sores around the genitals or rectum. Herpes simplex type 1, which is transmitted through oral secretions or sores on the skin, can be spread through kissing or sharing objects such as toothbrushes or eating utensils. In general, a person can only get herpes type 2 infection during sexual contact with someone who has a genital herpes infection. It is important to know that both types can be spread even if sores are not present.
Symptoms: do not affect everyone however, when it causes symptoms, it can be described as extremely painful. This is especially true for the first outbreak, which is often the worst. Outbreaks are described as aches or pains in or around the genital area or burning, pain, or difficulty urinating. Some people experience discharge from the vagina or penis. Oral herpes lesions (cold sores) usually cause tingling and burning just prior to the breakout of the blisters.
commonly known as shingles, is caused by the varicella-zoster virus — the same virus that causes chickenpox. Anyone who’s had chickenpox may develop shingles. After you recover from chickenpox, the virus can enter your nervous system and lie dormant for years. Eventually, it may reactivate and travel along nerve pathways to your skin — producing shingles. Shingles is more common in older adults and in people who have weak immune systems. A person with shingles can pass the virus to anyone who isn’t immune to chickenpox. This usually occurs through direct contact with the open sores of the shingles rash. Once infected, the person will develop chickenpox, however, not shingles.
Symptoms: usually affect only a small section of one side of your body. These signs and symptoms may include: pain, burning, numbness or tingling, sensitivity to touch, a red rash that begins a few days after the pain, fluid-filled blisters that break open and crust over and itching. Some people also experience: fever, headache, sensitivity to light and fatigue.
Human Parvo Virus
is a common and highly contagious childhood infection — sometimes called slapped-cheek disease because of the distinctive face rash that develops. In some adults, the infection can be serious. Parvovirus infection in some pregnant women can lead to serious health problems for the fetus. Parvovirus infection is also more serious for people with some kinds of anemia or who have a compromised immune system.
Symptoms: early signs and symptoms of parvovirus infection in children may include: fever, upset stomach, headache and runny nose. Several days after the appearance of early symptoms, a distinctive bright red facial rash may appear — usually on both cheeks. Eventually it may extend to the arms, trunk, thighs and buttocks. Adults don’t usually develop the slapped-cheek rash. Instead, the most prominent symptom of parvovirus infection in adults is joint soreness, lasting days to weeks. Joints most commonly affected are the hands, wrists, knees and ankles.
is an infection is which causes respiratory illness. Mycoplasma is spread throughcontact with droplets from the nose and throat of infected people especially when they cough and sneeze. Transmission is thought to require prolonged close contact with an infected person. Spread in families, schools and institutions occurs slowly.
Symptoms: usually appear two to three weeks after exposure and include fever, cough, bronchitis, sore throat, headache and tiredness. A common result of mycoplasma infection is pneumonia (sometimes called “walking pneumonia” because it is usually mild and rarely requires hospitalization). Infections of the middle ear (otitis media) also can result. Symptoms may persist for a few days to more than a month.
is an incredibly tiny bacterium-called Nanobacter that appears to cause or worsen a variety of ailments, including heart disease. These tiny bacteria, seen only with powerful electron microscopes, “ooze” a protective shell of calcium, coating themselves just like the sugar glaze on a donut. When enough Nanobacter are present, specks of calcification appear and grow-hardening arteries, creating kidney stones, perhaps even cataracts and gum disease.
Symptoms: include abnormal calcium deposits in breasts (in women), and dental plaque, kidney stones, specks of calcification appear and grow-hardening arteries, creating kidney stones, perhaps even cataracts and gum disease.
Rocky Mtn Spotted Fever
is a bacterial infection transmitted by a tick. Without prompt treatment, Rocky Mountain spotted fever can cause serious damage to internal organs, such as your kidneys and heart.
Symptoms: although many people become ill within the first week after infection, signs and symptoms may not appear for up to 14 days. Often (but not always) a red, non-itchy rash appears a few days after the initial signs and symptoms begin. Symptoms of Rocky Mountain spotted fever symptoms are often are nonspecific and can mimic those of other illnesses such as: high fever, chills, severe headache, muscle aches, nausea and vomiting, restlessness and insomnia.
there are several species of Streptococcus. The cause of strep throat is bacteria known as group A streptococcus. This bacteria is highly contagious. They can spread through airborne droplets when someone with the infection coughs or sneezes, or through shared food or drinks. You can also pick up the bacteria from a doorknob or other surface and transfer them to your nose, mouth or eyes.
Symptoms: include: throat pain that usually comes on quickly, painful swallowing, red and swollen tonsils, sometimes with white patches or streaks of pus, tiny red spots on the area at the back of the roof of the mouth (soft or hard palate), swollen, tender lymph nodes in your neck, fever, headache, nausea or vomiting, especially in younger children, body aches.
Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) is a single-celled parasitic organism that can infect most animals and birds. Because it reproduces only in cats, wild and domestic felines are the parasite’s ultimate host however i can be passed through contact with cat feces, unwashed fruits or vegetables or contaminated water. When a person becomes infected with T. gondii,the parasite forms cysts that can affect almost any part of the body — often your brain and muscles, including the heart. If you’re generally healthy, your immune system keeps the parasites in check. They remain in your body in an inactive state, providing you with lifelong immunity so that you can’t become infected with the parasite again. But if your resistance is weakened by disease or certain medications, the infection can be reactivated, leading to serious complications.
Symptoms: If you’re healthy, you probably won’t know you’ve contracted toxoplasmosis. Some people, however, develop signs and symptoms similar to those of the flu. If you have a weakened immune system and you may experience: headache, confusion, poor coordination, seizures, lung problems that may resemble tuberculosis or Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia or blurred vision caused by severe inflammation of your retina.